The use of dopaminergic antagonist antipsychotics is associated with hyperprolactinemia, but some studies have found increased prolactin concentrations in antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia and related disorders. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of prolactin in antipsychotic-naïve patient with these disorders (PRISMA No. CRD42015016337).
PubMed (Medline), PsycInfo, and Web of Science were searched for articles from 1950 to the present in English.
Seven studies of males (N = 141 for patients, N = 191 for control subjects) and five studies of females (N = 67 and N = 116) met criteria for inclusion: data on blood prolactin concentrations for both control subjects and antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia or a related disorder, with data available separately for males and females.
Data was extracted from the papers by one author and independently verified by a second.
The mean effect size for males was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.77, 1.26; p < 0.001) and 0.43 for females (95% CI 0.11, 0.76; p < 0.01). Meta-regression analyses for age, smoking, body mass index (BMI), year of publication, and cortisol were not significant. Funnel plots did not suggest the presence of a publication bias.
Our meta-analyses found significantly increased prolactin levels in both male and female antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia and related disorders. The small number of studies and limited matching for potentially confounding variables in some of the studies were limitations of this analysis. Prolonged hyperprolactinemia may lead to sexual dysfunction and osteoporosis, and some antipsychotics cause additional elevation of prolactin concentrations.
Prolactin, Meta-analysis, Psychosis, Schizophrenia