P Strålin and J Hetta,
European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists, Oct 29 2018
Comorbidity between neurodevelopmental disorders and psychotic disorders is common, but little is known about how neurodevelopmental disorders influence the presentation and outcome of first episode psychosis.A nation-wide cohort (n = 2091) with a first hospitalization for psychosis between 2007-2011 and at ages between 16-25 at intake was identified from Swedish population registries. Comorbid diagnoses of neurodevelopmental disorders were identified at first psychosis hospitalization and for ADHD also by dispensations of psychostimulants before the first psychosis hospitalization. Data from the registers on hospitalizations and dispensations of antipsychotic and psychostimulant medications during the year before and 2 years after the first psychosis hospitalization were analysed. Self-harm and substance use disorders were identified by ICD10 codes at hospitalizations.2.5% of the cohort was identified with a diagnosis of intellectual disability, 5.0% with autism and 8.1% with ADHD. A larger proportion of cases with Autism (OR = 1.8, p < 0.05) and intellectual disability (OR = 3.1, p < 0.01) were using antipsychotic medication year 2 compared to the rest of the cohort. Delusional disorder was more common in the autism group (OR = 2.3, p < 0.05) at first psychosis hospitalization. ADHD was associated with higher risks for substance use disorders and self-harm both before and after the first psychosis hospitalization. Year 2 substance use disorder had a OR = 2.6 (p < 0.001) and self-harm OR = 4.1 (p < 0.001).Psychosis with comorbid ADHD is associated with high risks for substance use disorders and for self-harm, while psychosis with comorbid autism and intellectual disability is associated with longer treatment and higher doses of antipsychotic medication.