- Reduced Use of Gestures: Schizophrenia patients often use gestures less frequently than neurotypical individuals. This reduction in gesture use can lead to difficulties in social communication, as gestures play a crucial role in conveying non-verbal information and emotion.
- Misuse of Gestures: Individuals with schizophrenia may use gestures inappropriately or out of context, potentially leading to confusion or miscommunication in social interactions.
- Impaired Interpretation of Gestures: Patients with schizophrenia often struggle to correctly interpret the gestures of others. This can further compound difficulties with social interaction, as misunderstanding non-verbal cues can lead to misinterpretation of others’ intentions or emotions.
- Impaired Imitation of Gestures: Studies have shown that individuals with schizophrenia often have difficulty accurately imitating both meaningless and meaningful gestures, which may reflect deficits in motor learning or executive functioning.
- Impaired Execution of Gestures: Even when individuals with schizophrenia do use gestures, they may execute them inaccurately or awkwardly. Gestures may be slower or smaller than typical, or include extra or omitted movements.