Pharmacogenetics of Clozapine treatment response and side-effects in schizophrenia: an update

Clozapine (CLZ) is the most effective treatment for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (SCZ) patients, with potential added benefits of reduction in suicide risk and aggression. However, CLZ is also mainly underused due to its high risk for the potentially lethal side-effect of agranulocytosis as well as weight gain and related metabolic dysregulation.

Expert opinion: Pharmacogenetics is a promising avenue for individualized medication of CLZ in SCZ, with several consistently replicated gene variants predicting CLZ response and side-effects. However, a large proportion of studies have yielded mixed results.