H Ito, T Kumagai, M Kimura, S Koike and T Shimizu,
Iranian journal of public health, May 2015
Patients with schizophrenia reportedly have a high prevalence of obesity. One of the reasons is a poor choice of diet. The goal of this study was to clarify characteristics of the dietary intake across the strata of the body mass index (BMI) and to compare the general population and patients with schizophrenia in Japan.This is a cross-sectional study of 51 patients with schizophrenia residing in rural areas in 2011. Anthropometric indices (of height, weight, body mass index) were measured at the commencement of the survey. Intakes of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, vitamins, total fiber, and salt were noted through a 3-day dietary recording. The nutrient intake was estimated using Excel add-in software (Excel Eiyou-kun Ver. 6.0, Kenpakusha Co., Ltd.). Patients were divided into two groups: those with a BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) and with a BMI <25 kg/m(2), and the differences in their nutrition intake were analyzed. To compare these patients with the general population, the results of the National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2010 (NHNS) were used (the NHNS group). For statistical analysis, an unpaired t-test was performed with P < 0.05.Patients with a BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) had the higher intakes than those with a BMI <25 kg/m(2) of energy, fat and phosphorus and salt. Patients with schizophrenia showed higher intakes of energy, carbohydrate, fat, calcium, phosphorus and salt than the NHNS group.The characteristics of the dietary intake in patients with schizophrenia were suggested the food constitution that is likely to increase the body weight.