S Grover, S Sahoo and R Nehra,
Asian journal of psychiatry, May 2019 20
The present study aimed to evaluate the neurocognitive functioning and psychosocial outcome (in terms of social functioning, disability and internalized stigma) in patients with schizophrenia with childhood/adolescent onset (age of onset ≤18 years) and adult onset (>18years) schizophrenia and to evaluate the effect of neurocognitive impairment on the outcome variables in patients with youth and adult onset schizophrenia.34 patients with youth onset schizophrenia (Group-I) and 56 patients with adult onset schizophrenia (Group-II), who were currently in clinical remission were assessed on a comprehensive neurocognitive battery,Positive and Negative syndrome Scale (PANSS), Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF), Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS),Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFS) and Internalised Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMIS).On neurocognitive domains (after adjusting for co-variates) significant differences were noted between the two groups in terms of processing speed (TMT-A; I > II; p-value -0.009), verbal fluency (COWA;I < II;p-value-0.001) and cognitive flexibility (TMT-B; I > II; p -0.031). Compared to patients with adult onset schizophrenia, patients with childhood & adolescent onset schizophrenia had significantly higher PANSS negative score, higher disability in all domains of IDEAS, poorer socio-occupational functioning, low global functioning and reported more stigma in the domains of alienation and discrimination.In patients with childhood & adolescent onset schizophrenia, higher deficits in the processing speed and verbal fluency were associated with significantly lower socio-occupational functioning and higher disability; higher executive dysfunction was associated with higher internalized stigma. Among patients with adult onset schizophrenia, higher disability was related to executive dysfunction only and higher stigma was associated with poor cognitive processing, selective attention and poor executive functioning.The present study suggests that compared to adult onset schizophrenia, patients with childhood & adolescent onset schizophrenia have more deficits in neurocognition, have higher level of disability, poorer socio-occupational functioning and have higher level of self-stigma.