B Misiak, F Bartoli, F Stramecki, J Samochowiec, M Lis, J Kasznia, K Jarosz and B Stańczykiewicz,
Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, May 2019 20
We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of appetite regulating hormones in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). Meta-analyses were conducted using random-effects models with Hedges' g as the effect size estimate. We identified 31 eligible studies, investigating the levels of 7 appetite regulating hormones (adiponectin, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, orexin, resistin and visfatin) in 1792 FEP patients and 1364 controls. The insulin levels in FEP patients were higher than in controls (g = 0.34, 95%CI: 0.19 - 0.49, p < 0.001), even considering only antipsychotic-naïve patients (g = 0.39, 95%CI: 0.12 - 0.66, p = 0.005). The severity of negative symptoms was positively associated with the effect size estimates (β = 0.08, 95%CI: 0.01 - 0.16, p = 0.030). Moreover, we found lower levels of leptin in antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients (g = -0.62, 95%CI: -1.11 - 0.12, p = 0.015). Impaired appetite regulation, in terms of elevated insulin levels and decreased leptin levels, occurs in early psychosis, before antipsychotic treatment. Hyperinsulinemia might be related to negative symptoms.