Disruptions of PPI are studied in humans and many other species. The most studied are deficits of PPI in schizophrenia, although this disease is not the only one to be associated with such deficits. They have been noted in panic disorder (Ludewig, et al., 2005), schizotypal personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder(Swerdlow et al., 1993), Huntington’s disease, nocturnal enuresis and attention deficit disorder (Ornitz et al. 1992), and Tourette’s syndrome (Swerdlow et al. 1994; Castellanos et al. 1996). According to one study, people who have temporal lobe epilepsy with psychosis also show decreases in PPI, unlike those who have TLE without psychosis. Therefore, PPI deficits are not typical to specific disease, but rather tell of disruptions in a specific brain circuit.
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