A Mendelian randomization study of the causal association between anxiety phenotypes and schizophrenia


Although anxiety has long been reported as a common feature of the schizophrenia prodrome (Docherty, Van Kammen, Siris, & Marder, 1978; Fusar‐Poli et al., 2014; Tien & Eaton, 1992; Turnbull & Bebbington, 2001), using genetic instruments to proxy anxiety disorder, we found only weak evidence that increased odds of having anxiety increases risk of schizophrenia. The majority of the MR approaches we used however, indicated that a higher neuroticism score increases odds of schizophrenia. This result is in agreement with longitudinal studies that report an association between higher levels of neuroticism and increased risk of development of psychotic symptoms (Goodwin et al., 2003; Krabbendam et al., 2002) and schizophrenia (Lönnqvist et al., 2009; Van Os & Jones, 2001), as well as a previous MR of neuroticism and schizophrenia that used a generalized summary‐data‐based MR [GSMR] approach (Nagel, Jansen, et al., 2018). In contrast to the other methods, the MR Egger approach showed little evidence of association between neuroticism and schizophrenia. However, the power to detect causal effects using MR Egger, as well as the SIMEX bias adjustment method, is very sensitive to the amount of violation in the NOME assumption which is potentially still too large in the current study (Bowden, Del Greco, et al., 2016).

They said " schizophrenia is a heritable psychotic disorder characterized by positive (e.g hallucinations and delusions)and negative (e,g apathy and flattened affect)symptoms "

When you consider the sz a disease (any disease ):
The disease is not a name be written or said,rather,it is a specific pathogen,has a structure,functions,mechanisms of influence that cause the release of a group of symptoms such as positive ,negative and cognitive ,where is such these characteristics in the report ?

Before making any comparisons between the sz and any other condition or made up any casual relationship between sz and any causes;
It is assumpted that there is extensive,confirmed and scientifically proven knowledge about the essential nature of the sz condition

It is not acceptable to make comparisons or similarities between sz any any other case in the absence of actual basic data about the nature of what is sz

Such as introduction that is written at the beginning of the report and is repeated with different implications in all reports related to the sz condition .
It lacks the most important factor,which is the absence of actual,real data that describing the main nature of sz case in accordance with its basic reality

When you say "sz is a heritable psychotic disorder "
It is only an alternative hypothesis that has been released in media until it is scientifically proven later ,and all reported like that !

Instead of agree with a logic: the accused is innocent until proven guilty , it has been replaced to a logic: the accused is guilty until proven guilty !
In practice,the prevailing logic of all reports of sz,assume that schizophrenia is a disease until it is proven later-even if the evidence take a thousand years or more !
Therefore,we must wait many years for this prophecy to materialize !

What is the schizophrenia condition in the real nature?
1-Schizophrenia is an independent psychological living health condition in his /her nature
2- Sz in itself is the sum of the existential and functional characteristics of a non-human living psychological entities which be called Hallucinations

3-Schizophrenia in itself, is not the sum of the personal behavioral characteristics of any human being
4- Schizophrenia condition is not the sum of the diagnostic symptoms (e.g positive,negative or cognitive )

5- All diagnostic symptoms including positive,negative and cognitive (except the hallucinations) are just a Personal Reflex Reactions
that appear as a result of the hallucination’s influence on the concept of meaning messages that was treated in the Receptors
6- The hallucination is the actual pathogen for the health condition be called schizophrenia
7- Hallucination (pathogen) is not a natural part from the Human Psychological Self ,and is not the production of the genetic material functions !

8- The hallucination is an external factor look like a virus ,therefore the schizophrenia health condition expresses her/his / themselves in the human being as a parasitic psychological health condition for what is a person (s) ,and never appear itself as a symptoms of disease or illness
9- The schizophrenia itself acts and behaves in the psychological / biological nature of the human being as a parasitic condition NOT as a hereditary condition or an organic disease
10- the hallucinations (sz pathogen) acts and behave in the human nature as a psychological poison / emotional poison and as a transmitter /receptor toxin

In the report,they said, the sz characterized by positive (e.g hallucinations and delusions ).
this is fatal mistake in this report and all scientific reports related Sz ,BECAUSE

They putting the hallucination (pathogen itself) in the results basket (e.g with the diagnostic symptoms) , so that it must be result in conclusions that will not be consistent with the actual reality of the schizophrenia condition ,and it is impossible to achieve from these conclusions any real understanding theoretically about sz,or treat the damage (symptoms) that result from sz actions without causing serious side effects

It’s more a disorder than a disease. Doesn’t that make most of your argument bogus?

What is the potential state of sz condition itself in isolated and independent about everything in the human nature ?
It means,what is the sz itself without saying one word about the diagnostic symptoms (whatever it was)
or what is the structural formulation of the schizophrenia condition in the basic nature of any human being ? static state of sz

The static state of the sz condition is the existential manifestations of the new living characteristics that emerged,materialized and settled in the conscious state / emotion of the person suddenly in the beginning of the third decade of life ,and the person feels and perceives them internally like he feels HIMSELF ,and you can not diagnosis these existential symptoms by any way or method

The Existential Symptoms is self-diagnosing by the person only
While the symptoms of disorder ( the details of the diagnostic material ) is different in the subject /content about the existential symptoms ,they are related only the observations of any external observers ,this observed symptoms are express about the Personal Reflex Reactions of that person with the effectiveness of functional activity of the new condition over the semantic concept of higher knowledge processes and the feelings of the emotion which lead to the change /disorder in all personal behavioral responses outputs,s
So that you can notice and diagnosis a symptoms of a disorder and express about them by your linguistic expressions as you want and say (positive,negative and cognitive …etc)

To know the essential different ::you can not diagnosis the voices be heard by the person or see the dynamic imagination images that be seen by the person or feel the changes that occur in the person’s emotions ,simply it is impossible practically to diagnosing the Hallucinations by any tools AND therefore You can not consider the hallucinations one of the diagnostic material !

There’s nothing existential about sz. It’s like that old song. Two people think their Jesus…one of them must be wrong. It’s a disorder that attacks the mind the same ways biochemically.

You think a lot about things that probably aren’t true but isn’t that the diagnosis of the schizophrenic?Put your energy into something like electronics…you could rule that in a year. Meanwhile I don’t know what you want to achieve here. We are schizophrenics and you add nothing with your arguments but long winded explanations of things that are ephemeral at best…

What do you want to achieve?

Just,you hate to understanding the truth because i explain it -no more
Look for what you were said " It’s a Disorder that attacks the mind the same ways biochemically"
the disorder is not a word be written or said ,it is the pathogen (cause) who has existential structure and functional characteristics and mechanisms of influence on the human nature ( the conscious mind state /emotion + chemical receptors )
just tell us the name of the disorder’s pathogen ,and show us the mechanism of creating any symptoms from the diagnostic material in the mental level and in the biochemical processes that associated with the subject that treated mentally and explain how they become personal behavioral responses outputs !!