B Kanchanatawan, S Sirivichayakul, K Ruxrungtham, AF Carvalho, M Geffard, G Anderson and M Maes,
Molecular neurobiology, Mar 2017 14
Deficit schizophrenia is accompanied by mucosa-associated activation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway, as indicated by increased IgA responses to noxious (NOX) TRYCATs, but not regulatory or protective (PRO) TRYCATs, suggesting increased neurotoxic, excitotoxic, inflammatory, and oxidative potential. No previous studies examined IgM-mediated autoimmune responses to the TRYCAT pathway in deficit versus nondeficit schizophrenia. We measured IgM responses to NOX TRYCATs, namely, quinolinic acid (QA), 3-OH-kynurenine (3HK), picolinic acid (PA), and xanthurenic (XA) acid, and PRO TRYCATs, including kynurenic acid (KA) and anthranilic acid (AA), in 40 healthy controls and 40 deficit and 40 nondeficit schizophrenic patients. We computed the IgM responses to NOX (QA + PA + 3HK + XA)/PRO (AA + KA) ratio and ∆ differences in IgA - IgM TRYCAT values and NOX/PRO ratio. Deficit schizophrenia is characterized by significantly attenuated IgM responses to all TRYCATs and NOX/PRO ratio and highly increased ∆IgA - IgM NOX/PRO ratio as compared to nondeficit schizophrenia and healthy controls. The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are significantly and positively associated with increased IgM responses directed against the KA/3HK ratio and ∆IgA - IgM NOX/PRO ratio. The findings support the view that deficit schizophrenia is a distinct subtype of schizophrenia that may be significantly discriminated from nondeficit schizophrenia. Deficit schizophrenia is accompanied by a highly specific defect in IgM isotype-mediated regulatory responses directed to the TRYCAT pathway. Lowered IgM regulatory responses together with mucosa-derived activation of the TRYCAT pathway may contribute to neuroprogression, negative symptoms, and deficit schizophrenia. All in all, a highly specific defect in the compensatory (anti-)inflammatory reflex system (CIRS), namely, natural IgM-mediated regulatory responses, may underpin deficit schizophrenia.